What is a Ledger Account & How it is Prepared?

THUR APR 14, 2022

Are you fresh to accounting and have stopped to comprehend ledger accounts? You've landed on the right page.

Ledgers have existed since the days when the abacus was cutting-edge technology. However, since computers have mostly replaced beads, the ledger accounts remain vital today.

This is because all of your company's financial reporting, including its balance sheet, is based on information from the ledger.

This article will guide you on all you need to know about ledger accounts and more!


What is an Accounting Ledger? 

An accounting ledger is a type of account or record that is used to keep track of bookkeeping entries for balance-sheet and income-statement operations.

Cash, accounts receivable, investments, inventories, accounts payable, accrued costs, and client deposits are examples of accounting ledger journal entries.

What is a Ledger and How is it Created?

A ledger is a book of accounts in which the categorized and summarized information from the journals is entered as debits and credits. A ledger is a book of accounts in which the categorized and summarized information from the journals is entered as debits and credits.

So, what kind of data is stored on the ledger? Everything from assets and obligations to income, costs, and equity is taken into account.

Accounting ledgers can be kept by hand in a written format, although they are more commonly kept as electronic records created by accounting software.

What is a Ledger Account?

A ledger account contains a list of all general accounts in the chart of accounts of the accounting system. The objective of a ledger account is to arrange the financial information required to create a company's financial statements. The following are some examples of ledger account items: 

· Cash

· Accounts receivable

· Inventory

· Accounts payable

· Accrued expenses

· Debt

· Fixed assets

· Office expenses

· Depreciation

· Income tax expense

· Stockholders' equity

· Revenue

· Cost of goods sold

· Salaries and wages

Features Of Ledger Accounts

The following are the features of a ledger account: 

· A ledger account has two sides, one is debit, which is visible on the left side of the account, and the other is credit, which is seen on the right side of the account.

· All financial transactions' debit entries are recorded on the account's debit side, while all financial transactions' credit entries are recorded on the account's credit side.

· The balance is represented by the difference between the debit and credit sides. A debit balance reflects the excess of the debit side over the credit side, whereas a credit balance represents the excess of the credit side over the debit side.

· Both sides are balanced after the period, and the excess balance is written over the closing balance.

· The closing balance is transmitted to the following year as a beginning balance for the new year after the accounting period.

The Different Types of Ledger Accounts

Based on function, there are three sorts of ledgers:

· The general ledger

· The sales ledger

· The purchase ledger

There is an unpopular one known as a private ledger, which shall be discussed further below.

The Account in the General Ledger

The general ledger collects information from journals. All journals are totaled and uploaded to the main ledger once a month. The general ledger aims to consolidate and summarize the individual transactions in all of the journals.

The Sales Ledger

The sales ledger, also known as the debtor's ledger, collects information from a company's sales log. The debtor's ledger's goal is to offer clarity on the customers who owe the company money and how much they owe.

The Purchases Ledger

The creditor's ledger is another name for the purchasing ledger. This purchasing ledger gets its information from the purchases diary. The goal of creating a creditors ledger is to offer information on which suppliers the company owes money to and how much it owes them.

The Personal Ledger

Private ledgers are designed to keep the proprietor's records and are not meant for general use, such as capital account, current account, drawing account, personal loan account, and so on.

There are five categories in the General Ledger account. There are five of them: assets, liabilities, income, expenses, and capital.


Fixed assets such as land and buildings, plant and machinery, motor vehicles, and so on are included in asset accounts. Current assets include cash on hand and cash in the bank. Other assets include prepaid costs, accounts receivable, and so on.


Notes payable, lines of credit, accounts payable and debt, revenue received in advance, and so on are examples of liability accounts.

Stockholders’ Equity

Common stocks and retained earnings are a part of the stockholder’s equity.

Revenue Accounts

Revenue accounts include all sales, services Fees, disposal of an asset, interest, and investments.

Accounts for Expenses

These types of accounts will have the added salaries and wages accounts for depreciation along with an account for electricity and stationery.

The Ledger Account Format

In accounting, a ledger is a book in which firms record all of the information required to create financial accounts. Here is what its format look like:

Account Title

A/C No.

Date DescriptionPRAmountDateDescriptionPRAmount

If you look closely at the ledger above, you'll note that each side of the ledger account (the debit and credit sides) is divided into four columns.

The following is an explanation of the function of these columns: 

Column of dates: The transaction's year, month, and day are entered in this column in the same way as they are in the general diary.

Description: This column, also called specific, contains the title of the related account, i.e., the order in which the account was recorded in the journal entry.

Posting Citation: This is also known as a folio number. This column contains the general journal page number.

Amount: The account's balance is recorded in this column. This is the monetary value of the transaction.

How to Create and Maintain a Ledger Account

Businesses that employ the double-entry bookkeeping approach use a general ledger. This means that each entry has a debit and a credit side, and every financial transaction has an effect on at least two general ledger accounts.

Double-entry transactions are recorded in two columns: debit and credit, with debit entries on the left and credit entries on the right.

According to the double-entry system, the sum of all debit and credit entries must balance, which implies they must be equal. A full description of how to construct a ledger account is provided below.

Make a separate ledger for each account. For example, all of your company's cash transactions will be documented in a cash account ledger. Make a general ledger account for out-of-the-ordinary spending.

Create columns for the transaction date, journal number, and specific on the far left side of the page (debit side). Carry out the same procedure on the right side (credit side).

Create amount columns on the debit and credit sides, as well as a balance column. Money received is recorded on the debit side, whilst money spent is recorded on the credit side.

The difference between the entire debit and total credit is referred to as the balance. Input data from the journals into the appropriate accounts. Examine the corresponding debits and credits.

The compilation of the trial balance is the next step in the accounting cycle.

In the trial balance report, the information in the ledger accounts is totaled up into account level totals. The trial balance totals are compared and utilized to generate financial statements.

Changes to transactions should be recorded and implemented as they occur. If you've already written a journal entry, make sure to add it to the ledger as soon as possible. Finally, integrate the various accounts to create a complete ledger.

The first page comprises the chart of accounts, which lists each ledger account and its number.

What is Ledger Posting?

Whenever a business transaction occurs, it is documented in the diary in the form of a journal entry. As a result, this entry is made to their corresponding ledger accounts. This is accomplished through the use of the double-entry technique.

As a result, ledger posting refers to the practice of publishing journal entries to their respective accounts.

Writing Journal Entries in a Ledger Account Rules

Some criteria must be properly followed while creating journal entries for the following accounts to have an accurate record book:

· Liabilities: This lowers the debit side while increasing the credit side.

· Assets: The figure raises the debit side while decreasing the credit side in assets.

· Capital is subject to the same regulations as liabilities.

· Income: Income is decreasing on the debit side while increasing on the credit side.

· Costs: On the credit side, the expenses account reduces while on the debit side, it grows.

The Value of a Ledger Account

The following are the reasons why you should prepare ledger accounts for your business: 

Determining a Company's Profit or Loss

A company cannot accurately assess its profit or loss for the year unless the required ledger accounts are prepared.

Every business must create an income statement to identify the actual and fair position of the financial statements, which cannot be determined without first compiling the required ledger accounts.

Account's Precise Condition

Ledger accounts indicate the exact state of the accounts, including whether they have an outstanding amount at the moment of terminating the account.

Saves You Time

Since most people record all ledger entries in one location, it is easier and faster to prepare other accounts such as trade, profit and loss, and balance sheets.


Every firm is required to generate ledger accounts for all parties engaged in every transaction to ensure the accuracy of the transactions that occurred during the year.

Individual ledger accounts lessen the probability of missing any transactions since ledger accounts will not be balanced if any transaction is missing.


How does one go about creating a ledger account?

· Make Ledgers one by one.

· Go to the Tally Gateway > Accounts Info > Ledgers > Accounts > Accounts > Accounts > Accounts > Accounts > Accounts > Accounts > Accounts > Account Make something (Single Ledger)

· Enter the ledger account's name here. Duplicate names are not permitted.

· If necessary, enter the ledger account's alias.

· Choose a group category from the list of available options.

· Fill in the Opening Balance.

What is the function of a ledger?

The ledger's goal is to take the entries made in the journal and track and total all transactions that affect a certain account. It displays your total monthly Widget A sales, payroll expenditures, and postal expenses for that month.

Can I transfer money from the ledger balance?

It is possible to withdraw funds from your ledger balance, but you need first to verify your available balance to ensure that the funds are present. This is because your available balance is changed far more frequently than your ledger balance.

Summing Up

A ledger is a collection of all journal transactions for all assets and liabilities, revenue, and costs of the financial statement. The balance is moved to trial balance for further accounting.

As a result, this concludes that compiling the ledger is an important part of the accounting process.

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